Water is the main material for every industrial sector. The water that undergoes various changes in the industries com out in the form of waste water, which then get mix with the sea or the ocean. Drinking or using the contaminated water may cause several health hazards. If the wastewater gets in touch with soil and reduce the productivity as well. It is very important to treat the waste water that is coming from the industrial sectors. Modern techniques are used by the industry owners to treat the waste water and reduce the level of toxics from it as well.
The industries mainly require water for many applications. They are used for manufacturing the goods, they are used in the thermal plants for heating and cooling, they act as the carrier o the raw material and also the carrier of the waste matter. Water also acts as the solvent. After all the operations, water comes from the industries in the form of waste water. The discharge of the polluted water in the streams and lakes put an impact on the environment in various ways. It affects the soil quality, polluting the water bodies where it is discharged and also cause air pollution and eutrophication. The contaminated water liberates harmful gases that are bad for health. When the waste water is discharged in the domestic sewer system, the functions of the domestic sewage treatment become difficult. Treatment of industrial wastewater is very important in these days. To prevent the diseases associated with the polluted water, it is very important to treat the waste water and remove the pollutants.
Pollutants in the waste water:
There are many contaminants that get mixed with water during the process in the industries. The suspended solids lead to the development of the sludge in the anaerobic conditions when the contaminated waste water gets discharged in the seas or rivers. The nutrients include Potassium, Nitrogen and Carbon. When the nutrients get discharged in the water bodies, they lead to the growth of excessive weeds on the surface of the water. When the waste water is discharged on the land surfaces, they cause pollution of the ground water. The organic and inorganic compounds come under the category of the priority pollutants. They increase the chances of carcinogenicity and high levels of toxicity. The refractory organics include surfactants, agricultural pesticides and phenols as well. The heavy metals take a large portion of the wastewater. The dissolved inorganic compounds include calcium, sulphate, sodium and many more.
There are various methods to treat the waste water that is generated from the industries. At first, the surface pollutants and solids are removed. In the second step, the suspended particles are removed. In the third stage, the biological pollutants are removed. The physical process mainly includes removal of the heavier pollutants. The treatments are screening, sedimentation, flotation, mixing, gas transfer, filtration and flocculation as well. The chemical treatments include removal of the pollutants through chemical means. The processes include precipitation, disinfection and absorption. The biological treatments include removal of the biological pollutants. When the waste water is passed through physical, chemical and biological processes, it is suitable for use. Treatment of industrial wastewater is one of the main factors in the industries.